More carbohydrates

Glycosides are derivatives of sugars. Breakdown products of natural glycosides next sugars (mostly glucose) are: hydroquinone, purines, methyl ester of salicylic acid, hydrogen cyanide. Glycosides are generally colorless and bitter in taste, soluble in water and alcohol. Some of the glycosides exert a strong effect on the human body. The most dangerous are glycosides that contain cyanide, which blocks the respiratory chain at the cell level. Such glycosides are in oilseed cake, some feeds, seeds of bitter almonds, plums, apricots, peaches.

Saponins are amorphous substances soluble in water and strongly decrease the surface tension. Increase foaming and stabilizing fats, because sometimes they are used for the manufacture of soft drinks and halvah. Their use in many countries is prohibited because they cause blood hemolysis, inflammation of the ileum. They are also in legumes (antinutritious substances).

Tannins are polyphenols combination with glucose. Found in coffee and tea, in small quantities in mushrooms. Tannin forms insoluble compounds with heavy metal salts - so it can reduce the absorption of iron, copper, etc. The protein forms insoluble complexes by causing inhibition of digestion in the stomach.

Organic Acids
For the organic acids include: malic acid, citric acid, lactic acid, succinic acid. In its structure does not contain nitrogen, and their physical-chemical features are similar to carbohydrates. Give characteristic taste and smell, may also be a source of energy. Some organic acids produced during fermentation products (souring cucumbers, cabbage, milk). During combustion, these acids often a base, which is involved in maintaining acid-base balance.

The cellulose group

This group is commonly called cellulose fiber or fiber tract (food fiber)
Fiber is not soluble in water (cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin) - this is part of nourishment which the body does not digest, but it is essential; insoluble fibers accelerate chyme passing through the gut, which assist in digestion and prevent constipation. Cellulose is not digested by humans. Included in the cell walls of plants. It is made ​​up of glucose bonded 1,4-ß-glycosidic bonds. It removes constipation, prevents the formation of digestive tract cancers, lowers blood glucose levels, inhibits weight gain, Hemicellulose - polysaccharides, insoluble in water. Lignins remove excess bile acids and cholesterol from the digestive tract, preventing the formation of gallstones,
Fiber-soluble (mucilages, gums, pectin) - fiber fractions inhibit the transfer of food from the stomach into the small intestine, thus prolonging the feeling of satiety and allowing for better absorption of some nutrients, these fibers have the form of a sticky substance present in the cell walls of plants . Locks have the ability to bind large quantities of water, which are used as laxatives (stomach problems). Rubbers are widely used in food production as a thickening agent, form connections with cellulose, so giving. pentocelulozy. Pectins are used to manufacture jams, are soluble in hot water, composed of arabinose, galactose, D-galacturonic acid, methanol and acetic acid.

The Starch Group

Starch - the main reserve material of plants. It provides almost 25% of total daily energy. Foods containing starch gives a feeling of satiety and reduces hunger a long time. Structure of starch grains is varied and specific to particular plants,

Inulin - occurs in the tubers of dahlia, artichoke, chicory. It consists of fructose. It is a polysaccharide, which in digestion, absorption, excretion is not subject to any changes (sugar test)

Glycogen - reserve material of animal organisms and yeast. Muscle glycogen is mainly used to provide energy for their work. Glycogen in liver is used directly as a source of glucose for the brain and red blood cells. The liver can not synthesize it. Glycogen is broken down into glucose,

Chitika - polysaccharide built only with N-acetylglucosamine. Not exposed to animal and plant enzymes. Is the main supporting and building material of some bacteria, fungi, insects, crustaceans.

HDL - "the good cholesterol"

These are high-density lipoproteins. Result in lower total blood cholesterol levels by its transport to the liver, where it is eliminated - therefore act positively, inhibiting the development of atherosclerosis. HDL cholesterol collects redundant and moves it back to the liver that was processed by the body. It can also remove cholesterol in the arteries that is lying backwards atherosclerosis.

LDL - "the bad cholesterol"

These are low density lipoproteins. Lead to high blood cholesterol levels by its transport from the liver to the tissues - thus accelerating the development of atherosclerosis. Elevated levels of LDL cholesterol increases the risk of heart disease because this form of cholesterol deposited on artery walls. To reduce the level of this fraction should limit their intake of saturated fats and trans isomers (products of animal origin such as meat, butter, milk fat and margarine hardened, cakes, French fries, chips), increase consumption of foods containing soluble fiber, to maintain normal weight. The only source of "the bad cholesterol" in the diet are animal products and vegetable products (even those with high fat content) do not contain it. Too much "bad cholesterol" in the diet may increase the level of this component in serum, although some people have higher "burn" cholesterol from foods of animal origin. For the remaining one of the conservation measures is to reduce daily cholesterol intake to 300 mg.


At the beginning of the twentieth century discovered the link between cardiovascular disease and cholesterol. Increased levels of "bad" cholesterol and free blood plasma triacylglycerols in the most important risk factors for atherosclerosis. When the blood flows freely through the blood vessels, along with her to each cell are delivered nutrients and oxygen essential for life. Circulate in the blood of the compounds, which can damage the inside of our arteries (eg free radicals). The resulting damage in this way makes in these areas begin to settle fatty substances (mainly cholesterol) and platelets. Formed deposits that impede blood flow to many organs. Thus, to reach them, less and less oxygen, and progressive hypoxia leads to organ failure. Usually does not cover all the narrowing of the arteries, appears only on certain sections. The most common concerns of the coronary arteries that bring blood to the heart. However, remember that cholesterol is also a precursor of many important and necessary for the proper functioning of the body compounds such as sex hormones, adrenal hormones, vitamin D, bile acids.